Hyaluronic acid is a molecule naturally synthesized by our body and is produced by fibroblasts present in the dermis (the middle layer of our skin) and - together with collagen and elastic fibers - forms the scaffolding of our skin. This scaffolding has the task of giving the skin tone, resistance, elasticity, firmness, firmness and hydration.
Hyaluronic acid is very important because it ensures that the skin retains firmness and hydration and, in addition, exerts a filling effect. A lack of it causes a weakening of the skin promoting the formation of wrinkles and imperfections. Its concentration in the tissues of the body tends to decrease with age.
In the amorphous matrix of connective tissue , hyaluronic acid is responsible for maintaining the degree of hydration, turgidity, plasticity and viscosity , since it is arranged in space in a conformation aggregate thus taking a considerable number of water molecules. It is also capable of acting as a cementing substance and as an anti-shock molecule as well as an efficient lubricant preventing damage to tissue cells from physical stress.
The extreme length of the molecule together with its high degree of hydration allows for more polymers of hyaluronic acid to organize itself to form a reticular structure which has two main functions:
- create a molecular scaffold to maintain the shape and tone of the fabric;
- function as filter against the free diffusion in the fabric of particular substances, bacteria , infectious agents. Only molecular weight substances low enough to be able to pass through the "mesh" of this net, they will be able to spread freely in the fabric; all substances with a higher molecular weight as well as bacteria or viruses they will get caught in the net. It should be noted that many bacteria are endowed with hyaluronidase , an enzyme able to break down hyaluronic acid, which allows them to open a passage by increasing their permeability. This enzyme is extractable from the testes coming from the sterilization of calves. The testes are rich in it, since hyaluronidase must be present in the sperm to make the membrane of the female egg permeable to the sperm.
It is the most widespread glycosaminoglycan in the fundamental substance and reaches its maximum concentration in the aqueous tissues, such as the synovial fluid, the umbilical cord and the vitreous body.
In short, products with hyaluronic acid must necessarily be added to the beauty routine!